泰國傳統民族服飾 Traditional Thailand National Costumes

「泰式風貌」的傳統服裝設計理念,和其他民族服飾的設計類似,是一項涉及習俗、宗教、歷史、色彩、美學及人體工學的綜合創作概念,更是一種融合社會科學與自然科學的跨界技藝 …

 

Traditional Thai National Costumes

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「泰式風貌」的傳統服裝設計理念,和其他民族服飾的設計類似,是一項涉及習俗、宗教、歷史、色彩、美學及人體工學的綜合創作概念,更是一種融合社會科學與自然科學的跨界技藝。

1972年1月12日,泰國郵政公司曾發行一套「泰國傳統服裝」(ชุดไทยเดิม)套票,票圖分別展示17世紀清善(เชียงแสน)時代、13-14世紀素可泰王朝、14-17世紀大城(阿育陀耶)王朝及18-19世紀曼谷(那達納哥辛)王朝等不同時期風貌各異的「傳統」服裝,可見「傳統」並非墨守成規或一成不變,它會隨著生活型態、宗教信仰及國族意識的變遷而產生質變,進而對當代服裝的審美觀與價值觀產生舉足輕重的影響。

泰國在不同朝代、族群及聚落,其所謂「傳統服裝」的造型及式樣均有不同。暹羅大城王朝時代,上自宮廷仕女下到平民百姓均以穿著泰式紗籠(ผ้าซิ่น / Sarong)為主。

節基曼谷王朝五世王朱拉隆功大帝之前,宮廷仕女為追求復古風潮,曾改穿源自印度高棉吳可式傳統褲裝(Chong kraben / Jongkrabane/ โจงกระเบน),那是一塊長布環繞腰際打結固定後,再把布的兩端捲拉過兩腿間並塞到腰背處,形成類似蓬鬆的燈籠褲造型,一般稱作絆尾幔。是泰國、寮國和柬埔寨的一種下身裹著的布,外形與燈籠褲類似。日常穿法於20世紀初滅絕。它是長三米,寬一米的長方形布。它被包裹在腰部周圍,將其從身體上拉出來,將兩端扭曲在一起,然後將扭曲的織物拉到腿部之間並將其捲入腰部後部。絆尾幔曾經是泰國歷史上常見的服飾,拉瑪七世時改為筒裙穿著。

 

絆尾幔 1

下身穿 絆尾幔(腰卷衣褲)Chong kraben

 

FJ Chong kraben Pants 01

FJ Chong kraben Pants 02

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西元1960年6月,拉瑪九世王后詩麗吉開始陪同泰王蒲美蓬國王出訪歐洲及美國進行國是訪問前,有感於泰國衣著服飾無法與國際審美觀接軌,女性沒有可穿著出席各種正式或非正式典禮、儀式、宴會或活動等場合的民族服裝,於是召集歷史學家及服裝設計師,參酌素可泰、大城至曼谷王朝之各代傳統服裝,從歷史意識中尋找文化模式並加以改造創新,運用色彩絢麗、織法獨特的泰絲綢緞為製衣面料,輔以泰國傳統竹/草編器皿的交叉花紋或幾何線條為裝飾圖案,設計出以大皇宮建物名稱命名的八款女裝和三款男裝,統稱為「泰國皇室傳統服裝」。泰式服裝由此得以傳承保留並不至徹底西化消失。

1960 詩麗吉 八款女張泰服 示意圖 1

詩麗吉主持設計的8款泰國民族女裝效果圖

 

诗丽吉王后 Queen_Sirikit_of_Thailand_Photographed_by_Trisorn_Triboon_副本

詩麗吉王后

 

2016泰國環球小姐冠軍 Chalita Suansane 著 Siwalai 喜瓦萊民族服飾向各媒體及觀眾展示,正式公開角逐2016環球小姐「最佳國服獎」的泰國國服,該套名為「泰國寶石」的國服代表泰國形象,整體剪裁以傳統泰國服裝式樣為準,主推金黃色系,頭飾為金黃色的佛塔造型,並運用泰國民眾喜愛的瑪瑙、寶石點綴,衣服上的所有刺繡、寶石,全都是由泰國知名傳統技師手工縫繡,不僅展示泰國傳統文化、穿著特色,還能襯托Namtan Chalita小姐高貴典雅的氣質,整套服裝重約14-15公斤,金光閃閃,非常耀眼,希望能在世界舞台展示泰國傳統文化及精湛手工技藝等云云。

missgrand2016e (1)

2016 泰國環球小姐 chalita-suansane 著 Siwalai

2016泰國環球小姐冠軍 Chalita Suansane 著 Siwalai 喜瓦萊

 

When Queen Sirikit accompanied by the Late King Bhumibhol Adulyadej (King Rama IX) in state visits to Europe and the United States in 1960, H.M. noted that there was a need for a modern national costume suitable for formal wear. The queen had researched and conducted data from historical records of royal dresses, and eight official designs were developed and promoted by the queen herself and her aides. The formal Thai national
costume, Chut Thai Phra Ratcha Niyom, literally Thai dress of royal endorsement, includes several sets of clothing designed for use as national costumes in formal occasions. There are named Ruean Ton, Chitlada, Amarin, Boromphiman, Chakkri, Dusit, Chakkraphat and Siwalai Thai dresses accordingly.

Since then, these dresses have been coming into the regular use by Thai women. For the last attire, at present, Thai fashion designers also offer a minor modification style dress, but still keep the same whole silhouette and change a little in terms of neckline, decoration and others for being used as wedding dresses for Thai bride during wedding ceremony. We call this new design of Thai traditional dress “Thai Prayook Dress” ( Contemporary Thai Dress) which each Thai designer has his or her own degree of creativity.

 

 

Womens 女裝

 

泰國傳統民族服裝女裝類常見款式介紹如下:

 

1. Ruean Ton 瑞安頓

套裝。上衣為七分袖,圓領,開襟,單排扣,五顆鈕扣;下裙為橫條紋筒裙。一般作為休閒服穿著。

Ruean Ton (Thai: ชุดไทยเรือนต้น Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj.rɯan.tôn]) is the most casual clothing of all outfits.  It is comprised of a horizontally or vertically stripped either cotton or silk Bha Sinh (Sarong) and also smooth-colored Sarong which edging stretches to ankle long and always folds to one side. Anyway, we are able to use blouse colors as same as fabric color stripe, either contrasting with sarong color or the same as the color of sarong. The blouse is separated from sarong, and her sleeves are elbow long in order to comfortable wearing. Her pattern is the rimless, five buttons, front opening and without collar. It is suitable for casual and non-official functions such as Kathin Ton, religious ceremonies of the conferring royal offerings to monks.

Ruen Ton Dress 03

Ruean Ton Dress 01

Ruean Ton Dress 02

 

2. Chit Lada 吉特拉達

套裝。上衣為長袖,立領。開門襟,五顆(一般為金/銀色)鈕扣。下裙為橫條紋筒裙。

Chit lada (Thai: ชุดไทยจิตรลดา Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj.tɕìt.lá.daa]) with its brocaded band at the edging of the Bha Sinh (sarong), is a daytime ceremonial dress. We are able to wear Thai Chitlada dress with a long sleeved blouse, with the front opening attached by five ornamental silver or golden buttons. Bha Sinh (sarong) is a casual wraparound. It can be worn to an informal ceremony such as welcoming the official royal guests at the airport. Wearers do not need to decorate insignia but the color and style should be appropriate for situation.

Chit Lada Dress 03

Chit lada 09

Chit Lada Dress 01

 

 

3. Amarin 阿瑪琳

上衣下裙套裝。與 Chit Lada 吉特拉達 類似。開門襟。五顆鈕扣。

Amarin (Thai: ชุดไทยอมรินทร์ ,Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj.ʔam.ma.rin]) is evening attire, made of brocaded fabric. This style, wearers do not need to wear belts. The blouse can be wide and round-necked. The sleeves length sits just below the elbows. The beauty of this dress is its textile and accessories. We are able to wear Thai Amarin dress for dinner or the important Royal Birthday Procession. The royal decorations (insignia) are necessary to be worn.

Amarin dress 03

Amarin Dress 01

Amarin Dress 02

 

 

4. Borom Phiman 寶隆菲曼

套裝或連體裙。筒袖上衣,立領;下身為筒裙。搭配佩戴。也有上下合一的連衣裙款式。

Borom Phiman (Thai: ชุดไทยบรมพิมาน,Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj.bɔɔ.rom.pʰí.maan])  is also formal evening attire, comprising a long sleeved blouse which is either buttoned at the front or back. The blouse is tucked beneath Bha Sin (sarong) with its front pleats (Na Nang). The fabric is brocaded to create a highly luxurious appearance and impression. Her collar is round-necked style. The skirt (sarong) length runs about the ankle. Both Bha Sin and blouse are sewn together like a one piece dress of which style is suitable for a tall and slender person. We are able to wear Thai Boromphiman dress in either formal or semi-formal events such as the League Ceremony or royal functions. It is necessary to decorate this dress with royal accessories (insignia).

Borom Phiman 01

Borom Phiman Dress 03

Borom Phiman Dress 05

FJ Borom Phiman 02

Borom Phiman 01

 

 

5. Siwalai 喜瓦萊

與 Borom Phiman 類似。但是,需要同時搭配(繡花)披肩。一般作為正裝禮服。

Chut Thai Siwalai (Thai: ชุดไทยศิวาลัย,Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj.sì.waa.laj]) is a formal evening costume and quite similar to Thai Borom Phiman attire. The difference between these two dresses is that Thai Siwalai dress is worn with an over-shoulder shawl Sabai. This traditional Thai costume is worn for royal ceremonies or formal functions.

 

Siwalai Dress 01

Siwalai Dress 05

ap Siwalai 01

Siwalai 01

 

 

6. Chakkri 恰克瑞

上衣下裙式套裝。上身裸肩,一般搭配披肩;下身穿筒裙,腰前有褶皺。

Chut Thai Chakkri (Thai: ชุดไทยจักรี ,Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj.tɕàk.krii]) is a formal and elegant outfit. Normally, the procession of weaving cloth is called “Yok" that is a special technique (Yok creates additional thickness within the fabric without adding supplementary threads. Often, a touch of gold or silver-colored threads are added to make this procession of fabric more expensive. This costume is finished with Bha Sinh (sarong), a full length-round skirt with two pleats folds in the front is called “Na Nang".

 

Chakkri Dress 03

Chakkri 1

FJ Chakkri 07

 

 

7. Chakkraphat 恰克拉帕特

上衣下裙式套裝。與 Chakkri 恰克瑞 類似,但是更加莊重一些。上身裸肩,搭配刺繡披肩。

Chut Thai Chakkraphat (Thai: ชุดไทยจักรพรรดิ ,Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰút.tʰaj.tɕàk.kra.pʰát]) is Thai Clothes with a shawl like Thai Chakkri. However, it is more conservative and considered more official. The upper part has a pleated shawl cover, a thicker shawl with full embroidery on the upper shawl. It can be worn for royal or national ceremonies.

 

Chakkraphat 07

Chakkraphat 02

ap Chakkraphat 01

ap Chakkraphat 02

 

 

8. Dusit 都喜特

上衣為大圓領,無袖;下身為筒裙。也有上下合一為連衣裙的款式。

Thai Dusit is a round-necked and sleeveless dress. It is very suitable for an evening party as same as western evening dresses. The upper attire may be embroidery or decorated appropriately. The upper clothes may be separated from piece itself or sewn to the skirt. Bha Sin or sarong should be a silver or gold pleated fabric and raised edging. This attire should be worn with traditional Thai ornaments or Western decorations that are appropriate to the occasion.

Dusit 05

Dusit Dress 03

ap Dusit 01

 

 

其他女裝款式

 

Prayook (Contemporary Thai Clothes) 普拉約克  (當代泰國民族服飾)

Prayook 普拉約克,是在 Chakkri 恰克瑞 的基礎上修改而來。無袖。前身有褶皺。上衣下裙分開,也有上下合一的連衣裙款式。搭配佩戴。一般作禮服穿著。

This costume is modified from Thai Chakkri dress. The method of cutting is like (traditional Thai) non- sleeve. It is pleated and leaving the edging of piece long and are sewn together like a one piece dress. Bha Sin or sarong is in traditional Thai design and decorated with front pleats (Na Nang) and also traditional Thai belt. It is very popular in the night clubs or wedding celebration.

Prayook Dress 01

Prayook 01

Prayook Dress 02

 

 

Sabai 撒擺 披肩式上衣

Sabai or sbai (Thai: สไบ, RTGS: sabai), or phaa biang (Thai: ผ้าเบี่ยง ) is shawl-like garment, or breast cloth worn in mainland Southeast Asia.

The term “Sabai" is used for a woman’s silk breast wrapper in Cambodia, central Thailand, southern Thailand, northern Thailand, Isan, and Laos while in coastal Sumatra it is described as a shoulder cloth.
A Sabai can also be worn by men in Lao weddings or when attending religious ceremonies. The type of Sabai typically worn by Lao men often has checkered patterns. Sabai also well known as a long piece of silk, about a foot wide, draped diagonally over the chest covering one shoulder with one end dropping behind the back."

 

A Khmer female dancer wearing a rich-decorative sabai on her right shoulder along with sampot chang kben

Chakkraphat Dress 1

 

Sabai 抹胸 05

 

 

Suea pat 上衣

The suea pat (Northern Thai pronunciation: [sɯ̋a.pát]) or suea pai (Northern Thai pronunciation: [sɯ̋a.pa̋aj]) is a type of shirt worn by women from different ethnic backgrounds in Laos and Northern Thailand and other areas in Southeast Asia. These ethnic groups typically include the Lao, the Tai Lue, and the Tai Yuan etc.

The suea pat is a long-sleeved shirt with no buttons. It is worn by wrapping the right side of the front panel of the shirt over the left side of the front panel, and the two panels are tied together via strings. Suea pats from Luang Prabang, Laos typically have large golden collars.

老撾 女人 wearing a suea pat

Suea pat 01

Laos wearing a suea pat 七分袖

 

Pha nung  帕努 下裙

The Panung (Thai: ผ้านุ่ง, RTGS: pha nung, pronounced [pʰâː nûŋ]) is a traditional garment worn in Thailand. The long strip of cloth is wrapped around the waist, reaching below the knees. The cloth is sometimes passed between the legs and tucked at the back in a fashion known as chong kraben.
The garment is normally paired with a pha hom, a similar cloth used to cover the upper body. The Pha nung is a Thai variant of the Sampot, a traditional Cambodian garment worn in a similar way.

Thai children wearing white panung pants

 

Sinh  下裙

The sinh (Thai: ซิ่น, Thai pronunciation: [sîn]) is a traditional garment worn by Lao and Thai women, particularly northern Thai and northeastern Thai women. It is a tube skirt which can identify the woman who wears it in a variety of ways. In particular, it can indicate which region the wearer is from. In present-day Thailand, sinhs are typically worn in special events. However, in Laos sinhs are worn more regularly in daily life.

A sinh is typically composed of three components:

hua sinh,literally “the head of the sinh", is the waistband part, which is typically tucked in and hidden.
phuen sinh or tua sinh (Thai: ตัวซิ่น), literally “the body of the sinh", is the body part which is the main part of the sinh. This part of the sinh is typically not detailed. In particular, it typically only consists of one or two colors.
tin sinh, literally “the foot of the sinh", is the hem part. The hem is typically woven with a lot of details. The specific details of the hem can indicate where the sinh is made.

The sinh is made of silk, woven in ornate motifs with delicate embroidery. They come in different textures and designs and are usually created in rural areas by ethnic groups.

sinh

sinh_three_parts

穿 Sinh下裙的 老撾女孩

 

 

男裝 Mens

 

Raj pattern

Raj pattern (Thai: ราชปะแตน, RTGS: Ratcha pataen) refers either to a Thai men’s costume consisting of a white Nehru-style jacket with five buttons, a chong kraben, knee-length socks and dress shoes, or to the specific form of the jacket itself. It was worn chiefly during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by government officials and the upper class in Bangkok, and nowadays is used in select circumstances as a national costume.

Nowadays, the full raj pattern costume is worn only on select occasions as a national costume, and is employed regularly only in the tourism industry.

 

King_Chulalongkorn_wearing_raj_pattern

King Chulalongkorn wearing the Raj pattern costume

 

Another Thai garment which is very similar in design is the suea phraratchathan.

 

Phraratchathan

The men’s national costume is known as suea phraratchathan (เสื้อพระราชทาน). It was designed to serve as a national costume by royal tailors including Chupat Chuto, Phichai Watsanasong, and Sompop Louilarpprasert for King Bhumibol Adulyadej in 1979, and was subsequently given to General Prem Tinsulanonda, then the Minister of Defense, to promote and wear in public. Prem has remained the shirt’s most recognised wearer, although it has been adopted by many, especially politicians and civil officials, on special occasions. Many have begun wearing the shirt for ceremonies such as their own weddings.

The shirt shares the appearance of the raj pattern jacket. The suea phraratchathan is specified as having a standing (Mandarin) collar 3.5 to 4 centimetres in height, being slightly tapered at the sides, hemmed at the edges of the collar, placket and sleeves, with five round flat buttons covered with a material identical or similar to that of the shirt. It should have two outer pockets at the front, at a level slightly higher than the lowermost button, may have a left-sided breast pocket, and may either be vented or not. The shirt comes in three varieties: short-sleeved, long-sleeved, and long-sleeved with a sash, which range from the least to most formal, respectively. The long-sleeved versions should have 4 to 5 centimetres-wide cuffs of the same material as the shirt, and the sash, when used, should be knotted at the left side. The shirt is worn with trousers as would be with a suit jacket.

 

Abhisit Vejjajiva wearing the phraratchathan_副本

Abhisit Vejjajiva wearing the phraratchathan

 

泰國常見的男式民族服飾,上衣為夾克 Raj pattern(ราชปะแตน ),長袖,立領,單排五只鈕扣。下身穿長褲。

 

 

傳承

 

近年來,傳統民族服飾再度受到追捧和提倡。2018年2月8日至3月11日,泰國政府在舊國會大廈前廣場,舉辦以拉瑪五世及九世時期服飾為著裝主題的「暖愛驅寒」盛會。一個月的活動期間則吸引逾100萬民眾及遊客穿著泰服前往朝聖。泰國文化部亦曾根據內閣批准的「促進泰國年輕人穿著泰式服裝計畫」,正式致函各公務機關及部份民間企業,積極聯合民間業者並邀請國內與全球著名設計師,運用泰式面料(泰絲 / ผ้าไหมไทย)及傳統圖紋(萊泰 / ลายไทย)來設計民族服飾,同時鼓勵設計師自由創作服裝造型,並強調政府不會明確限制泰服式樣或風格,一切均以激發泰人穿著泰式服裝的興趣為目標。

 

 

(素材來源於網絡,部分翻譯和內容為原創,匯編成此帖,僅供參考)

 

 


 

 

參考資料:

 

維基百科:History of Thai clothing
維基百科:Traditional Thai clothing
維基百科:Formal Thai national costume
History and Examples of Traditional Thai Clothing